Bicycle and Cycling Statistics

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On this page, there are a number of researches, studies, statistics, and more trusted resources loaded, to show how bicycles and cycling differ from other transportation and what they can bring to us.

And please do not hesitate to tell us the bicycle and cycling statistics that we have uncovered in the following words, in the comments section below. We will update them as soon as possible. Thanks in advance.

1. Cyclist Statistics

Although the average bicycle commuter is a 39-year-old male professional with a household income in excess of $45,000 per year who rides 10.6 months per year, nearly one in five respondents was female. – Survey of North American Bicycle Commuters: Design and Aggregate Results, William E. Moritz, 1997

A 41% increase in bike trips in the US from 1977 to 1983, a 2% drop from 1983 to 1990, and a 55% increase from 1990 to 1995. Over this period, total bicycle trips approximately doubled and the percentage of trips by bike rose from 0.6% to 0.9%. – Bicycling renaissance in North America? Recent trends and alternative policies to promote bicycling, John Pucher, Charles Komanoff, Paul Schimek, 1999

i. Bicycling has a somewhat different regional pattern, with the highest level in the Pacific (1.1%), but roughly the same levels in the rest of the country (0.7% to 0.9%), except for the East South Central, which has a much lower level (0.4%).

ii. Bicycling is the highest among whites and Hispanics (0.9% of all trips). For whites, cycling is mostly for recreation, while for Hispanics, it is to reach the workplace.

Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS, John Pucher and John L. Renne, 2001

Despite the presence of almost one adult-size bicycle per household (0.86), on average only about 8% of adults report taking a bicycle trip in the last week. – Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2003

Among middle school students, 4.1% usually bicycled to school at least 1 day per week, and for high school students, 2.8% usually bicycled to school at least 1 day per week. – Statewide prevalence and correlates of walking and bicycling to school, Kelly R Evenson, Sara L Huston, Bradley J McMillen, Philip Bors, Dianne S Ward, 2003

Utilitarian walking and bicycling are significantly correlated with parkland acreage. – Relationships among community characteristics and walking and bicycling for transportation or recreation, Amy I Zlot and Tom L Schmid, 2005

Neither cool climate nor warm climate assures preventing cycling. For example, the Yukon Territory—roughly the same latitude as Alaska—has a bike share of work trips more than twice as high as California’s (2.0% vs. 0.8%) and more than three times as high as Florida’s (0.6%). – Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: A comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies, John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, 2006

12.7% of people in the US reported using trails at least once a month and 24.3% at least once a week. People who reported using trails at least once a week were twice as likely than people who reported rarely or never using trails to meet physical activity recommendations – Characteristics of physical activity levels among trail users in a U.S. national sample, John J Librett, Michelle M Yore, Thomas L Schmid, 2006

From a social perspective, cycling in the US is limited mainly to young men. In sharp contrast, cycling in northern Europe is as common for women as for men, and declines only slightly with age. – Cycling for Everyone: Lessons from Europe, John Pucher and Ralph Buehler (Rutgers University), 2007

An event called Ride to Work Day, held in Victoria, Australia, indicated that more than one in four (27%) of those who rode to work for the first time as part of the event were still riding to work five months after the event. Over 80% of first-timers indicated that the event had a positive impact on their readiness to ride to work with 57% indicating that it influenced their decision to ride. – Travel behaviour change impacts of a major ride to work day event, Geoff Rose, Heidi Marfurt, 2007

Of the en-route cycle facilities, a completely segregated cycleway was forecast to have the greatest impact, but even the unfeasible scenario of universal provision of such facilities would only result in a 55% increase in cycling and a slight reduction in car commuting. Payments for cycling to work were found to be highly effective with a £2 daily payment almost doubling the level of cycling. – FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROPENSITY TO CYCLE TO WORK, Mark Wardmana, Miles Tight, Matthew Page, 2007

78% of cyclists in NYC use the NYC Cycling Map; When riding on-street, 93% of riders prefer streets with bike lanes and signs; 76% of cyclists prefer riding on off-street bike facilities to on-street; 95% of cyclists want more on-street bike racks; The most common reason that non-commuting cyclists do not commute by bike is because of driver behavior/traffic and lack of safe storage at work; The most common reason commuter cyclists do commute by bike is because it is healthy/good exercise and because it is environmentally friendly; Bicycle commuters have been commuting by bike on average for 5.7 years; 44% commuters start in Manhattan and 41% in Brooklyn, and 81% end in Manhattan and 10% in Brooklyn; At the workplace, 52% park their bikes outdoor and 48% park indoor; Commuting cyclists most often encounter problems with vehicles not sharing the roadway and vehicles parked in bike lanes; The average commute time for cyclists is 35 minutes; Distance between home and work, and having a longer commute by bike does not keep non-commuting cyclists from commuting by bike; 54% of commuter cyclists ride round-trip 5 or more times per week; 29% of commuting cyclists connect to other modes of transportation to reach their destination. – The New York City Bicycle Survey, 2007

Very few children walk or bike to school. In 1969, approximately 50% of children in the U.S. got to school by walking or bicycling. By 2001, only about 15% of students traveled to school by walking or bicycling. – Safe Routes to School: 2007 State of the States Report, Safe Routes to School National Partnership, 2007

i. Nearly half of people 16 or older (46%) had bicycles available for their use on a regular basis. Across the NHTSA Regions, those living in NHTSA Regions 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI) (56%) and 8 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) (58%) were more likely to have access to bicycles than were those living in other regions of the country. Those in NHTSA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX) (40%) were least likely to have access to bicycles.

ii. Males (51%) were more likely than females (42%) to have access to bicycles. Those 16 to 20 (62%) reported the greatest access to a bicycle, while just 23% of those 65 or older reported access to bicycles.

iii. As household income rises, so too does access to a bicycle. Those with household incomes under $15,000 were less likely to have access to bicycles (29%) than those in the middle income range of $30,000 to $49,000 (47%) and those in the upper income range of $75,000 or more (65%).

iv. Nearly 6 in 10 (57%) people 16 or older reported that they never use bicycles during the summer months (18% of these nonusers have access to bicycles, and 82% do not). About 1 in 7 (13%) said they use bicycles less than once a month, but at least once during the summer months. An additional 11% reported using a bicycle at least once a month, but not weekly. About 1 in 5 (19%) reported using a bicycle at least once a week.

v. Males 16 or older (24%) were nearly twice as likely as females (13%) to say they ride their bicycles at least once a week in the summer months. More than 6 in 10 (64%) females said they never ride a bicycle, compared to half of males (49%).

vi. Propensity to bicycle at least once a week tended to decline with age, with 27% of those 16 to 20 saying they ride at least weekly, compared to 15% of 46- to 64- year-olds, and just 6% of those 65 or older. Similarly, the likelihood of reporting never riding a bicycle generally increased with age, with 85% of those 65 or older never bicycling, compared to 37% of those under 21 who never ride.

vii. Propensity to bicycle at least once a week was higher among Hispanic people (25%) than among White non-Hispanic (19%), Black non-Hispanic (15%) and Asian (9%) people. Black non-Hispanic people 16 and older (63%) were most likely to say they never used bicycles during the summer months.

viii. Regions vary considerably in the proportion of people bicycling at least once a week in the summer months ranging from a high of 24% in NHTSA Regions 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI) and 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA) to a low of 14% in NHTSA Regions 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN) and 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX). People in NHTSA Regions 4 and 6 were the most likely to say they never ride bicycles in the summer months (63% and 62%, respectively).

ix. People 16 and older who bicycled at all in the summer months rode a bicycle an average of 5.0 days in the past 30 days. Males rode an average of 5.8 days, compared to 3.9 days for females. Those 16 to 20 rode a bicycle more often (6.1 days) in the past 30 days than did those 30 or older (4.7 days on average).

x. Those who rode a bicycle at least once in the summer months and live in NHTSA Regions 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI) (5.6 days) and 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NV) (5.5 days) reported a higher average number of days riding a bicycle in the past 30 days than did those living in other regions of the country. Those living in NHTSA Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT) (4.0) averaged riding the fewest number of days.

xi. The frequency with which one rode a bicycle in the summer can be divided into heavy riding (20 or more days per month), medium riding (8 to 19 days per month) and light riding (1 to 7 days per month). More than 6 in 10 bicyclists were light-frequency bicyclists (64%), 22% were medium-frequency bicyclists, and 14% were heavy frequency bicyclists during the preceding 30 days.

xii. About one quarter of people 16 and older (27%) reported bicycling at least once in the previous 30 days. Males (34%) were more likely to be bicyclists than females (21%), and younger riders 16 to 20 (42%) were more likely to bicycle than those of an older age group.

xiii. Black non-Hispanic (22%) and Asian (24%) people were least likely to report bicycling at least once during the past 30 days in the summer months. Those of Hispanic (31%), White non-Hispanic (28%) and Other (30%) descent were most likely to report bicycling.

xiv. Those residing in NHTSA Regions 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI) (33%), 8 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) (32%) and 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA) (32%) were most likely to bicycle at least once in the past 30 days. Those in NHTSA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN) (22%) and NHTSA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX) (22%) were the least likely to be bicyclists.

xv. Nearly half of bicyclists (defined as those riding a bicycle at least once in the past 30 days) reported no change in their bicycling behavior compared to about a year ago (46%). However, equal numbers reported bicycling more often (27%) as reported bicycling less often (27%). Male bicyclists (26%) were almost as likely as female bicyclists (28%) to report bicycling more often than a year ago. Bicyclists 21 to 29 (41%) were more likely to report an increase in bicycling behavior than were other age groups. Bicyclists 16 to 20 (44%) were more likely to report a decrease in bicycling behavior than were other age groups.

xvi. Increases in bicycling behavior over the past year varied little by NHTSA Region, ranging from 23% reporting an increase in NHTSA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MI, NC, SC, TN) to 31% reporting an increase in NHTSA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX). Bicyclists in NHTSA Region 8 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) (53%) were most likely of those in any region to report no change in bicycling behavior from about a year ago

xvii. Nearly 4 in 10 heavy- (38%) and medium-frequency (38%) bicyclists reported an increase in their bicycling behavior over the past year. Light-frequency bicyclists (20%) were less likely to report an increase.

xviii. Nearly three-fourths of those 16 or older (72%) never rode a bicycle or had not done so in the past 30 days in the summer of 2002. This represents approximately 151 million people who did not bicycle. The top reason given for not bicycling is lack of access to a bicycle (28%). Nearly as many (25%) reported their primary reason for not bicycling as lack of need or desire to ride a bicycle. Fewer reported a physical difficulty (11%) or weather conditions (10%) as the primary reason for not bicycling.

xix. While males and females were equally likely to cite lack of access to a bicycle as a reason for not bicycling (28% each), males (30%) were more likely than females (21%) to cite lack of need or desire to bicycle. Those 21 to 29 were more likely to cite lack of access to a bicycle as their top reason than were other age groups. Those over 64 most often cited physical difficulty (21%) and lack of access to a bicycle (22%) as their main reasons for not bicycling.

xx. While non bicyclists overall were nearly equally likely to cite lack of access to a bicycle (28%) as lack of need/desire to bicycle (25%), this varied by region. Nonbicyclists in NHTSA Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT) were much more likely to cite lack of need or desire to bicycle (32%) than they were a lack of access (23%). NHTSA Region 8 (CO, MR, ND, SD, UT, WY) non cyclists also cited lack of need/desire (29%) more frequently than lack of access (24%). In contrast, lack of access was the more predominant reason in most of the other regions, particularly in NHTSA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NV), NHTSA Region 2 (NJ, NY), and NHTSA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN). Non Bicyclists citing weather conditions ranged from a high of 14% in NHTSA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX), to a low of 4% in NHTSA Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA).

National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behavior, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Royal, D., and D. Miller-Steiger, 2008

Low-income and minority groups, particularly blacks and Hispanics, use active travel modes (walking and cycling) to get to school at much higher rates than whites or higher-income students. – Critical Factors for Active Transportation to School Among Low-Income and Minority Students: Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey, McDonald, N., 2008

According to a survey which consists of 29% female respondents and 71% male, among the female respondents, 45% are commuter bicyclists, while the corresponding figure for male respondents is 53%. Men are slightly likely to bicycle to work relative to women. In terms of age, 87% of those in the 18-24 year age group, 61% of those in the 25-34 year age group, 49% of those in the 35-44 year age group, 35% of those in the 45-64 year age group, and 19% of those at or above the age of 65 years bicycle to work. – An Analysis of Bicyclists and Bicycling Characteristics: Who, Why, and How Much are they Bicycling?, Ipek N. Sener, Naveen Eluru, Chandra R. Bhat, 2008

Only 42.5% of high school students reported actively commuting (walking and cycling) to school. Students were less likely to actively commute to school if they were girls, in grade 12, smoked daily, were low-moderate in physical activity, or attended a rural school. – Social-ecological correlates of active commuting to school among high school students, Jennifer E Robertson-Wilson, Scott T Leatherdale, Suzy L Wong, 2008

At Orenco Station, a more affluent suburban neighborhood transit-oriented development (TOD), 18% of TOD commuters regularly use transit, 75% travel in single occupancy cars, and 2.7% carpool, bike, or walk. – Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel, G. B. Arrington, Robert Cervero, 2008

The world produced an estimated 130 million bicycles in 2007—more than twice the 52 million cars produced. – Bicycles Pedaling Into the Spotlight, J. Matthew Roney, 2008

When adults in New Zealand lived less than 2 km away from their place of work or study, 87% perceived they could use transport-related physical activity modes, such as walking or cycling for travel purposes, to travel to work, and 34% actually did. But these figures dropped considerably to 30% and 3%, respectively, for commute distances of 5 km or more. – Travel behavior and objectively measured urban design variables: Associations for adults traveling to work, Hannah M. Badland, Grant M. Schofield, Nick Garrett, 2008

The lowest rate of active transportation was seen in the United States (only 8% of trips by walking + cycling + public transit), whereas the highest rate was seen in Latvia (67% of trips by walking + cycling + public transit). – Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia, David R. Bassett, Jr., John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Dixie L. Thompson, and Scott E. Crouter, 2008

In 2006, Pittsburgh ranked in the top 15 cities in the country for the number of city residents that commute by bike with 0.8%. In 2008, even more people decided to commute on two wheels, increasing the percentage to 1.1, putting it in the top 11 cities, tied with Chicago and Honolulu. – NATIONWIDE COMMUTING TRENDS, PITTSBURGH INCREASES RANK IN CYCLING, Bike Pittsburgh Blog. 2008

As of 2006, 1.2% of Philadelphians biked to work. In other words, out of 100 workers, 1.2 workers rode a bike to work 3 days a week, as opposed to the number who drove (61), took public transit (26.4), walked (8), took a taxi or motorcycle (1) or worked at home (2.4). Philadelphia’s bike commute mode share is better than the national average (0.5%), New York City (0.6%) and Chicago (0.9%), but not as large as Washington DC (2.0%) or Portland, Oregon (4.0%). In three years between 2005 and 2008, bicycling doubled at counted locations (including all Schuylkill bridges and two intersections). Bicycling increased 104%, or roughly 35% a year. Prior to 2005, bicycling was increasing at a slower pace, roughly 6.1% a year, and it took fifteen years for bicycling to increase 98% between 1990 and 2005. Since 1990, bicycling in Philadelphia has increased 300%. – Double Dutch: Bicycling Jumps in Philadelphia, Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia, 2008

In 2008, the proportion of bicycling as the primary means to travel to work for the residents in the city of Portland increased to 8% from 6% in 2007. – 2008 Resident Survey, City of Portland, Office of the City Auditor, 2008

According to official statistics compiled by the Oregon Bicycle Racing Association (OBRA), the Portland-based River City Bicycles Cross Crusade series grew an average of 25% each event compared to last year (from 836 participants per race in 2007, to 1045 in 2008). – Cross Crusade participation up 25% in 2008, BikePortland, 2008

In the U.S., men’s cycling trips surpass women’s by at least 2:1. In the Netherlands, where 27% of all trips are made by bike, 55% of all riders are women. In Germany 12% of all trips are on bikes, 49% of which are made by women. – How to Get More Bicyclists on the Road, Linda Baker, October 1, 2009

Increasing the gasoline price by one dollar increased the probability of cycling by 4.3 to 4.7 percentage points and 2.9 to 3.5 percentage points for men and women, respectively. – Associations of cycling with urban sprawl and the gasoline price, Inas Rashad, 2009

89% of cyclists also own at least one automobile. Advanced cyclists use their automobile for roughly 25% of trips taken throughout the week, compared to 63% for noncyclists. – Bicycling Perceptions and Experiences In Oregon and Southwest Washington, Inavero Institute for Service Research, 2009

86% and 84% of the Dutch people give a positive score for the car and the bicycle respectively. Public transport is less highly appreciated: 51% give a negative score, while 26% give a positive score. – Car and bicycle are very highly appreciated, Fietsberaad, 2009

36% of people in Copenhagen who enter the city for work or for school do so on a bicycle and among people who live in their city’s core, 55% bike to work. 60% of Copenhagen residents say biking when asked what is your main mode of transport, and 25% of families with 2 or more children have a cargo bike. – Summit starts with lessons from Copenhagen, Jonathan Maus, 2009

Among a sample of 450 respondents and 600 general surveys, 68.5% said yes to attempting to bike during the recent snowstorms. And 64.3% of them can reach their destination(s) by bike – Mayor’s office releases results of bike – specific storm survey, Jonathan Maus, 2009

Bicycling crashes and injuries are down markedly in Minneapolis. The Midtown Greenway saw a 24% increase in ridership in the first four months of the year (2009), compared to the same period of 2008. Ridership from March through December last year was up 32% over the same period the year before. – There’s safety in numbers for those on bikes, Star Tribune, 2009

In comparing combined bus, bike and walk work‐trip mode shares, Boulder’s working residents reported significantly different travel behavior. The bus+bike+walk mode share for work‐trips for Boulder’s residents of 28.8% was over three times the national average and almost four times higher than residents of the Denver Metro area. – Journey to Work in the City of Boulder: Travel Data Update: October 2009, City of Boulder Transportation Staff, 2009

Between 2002 and 2008, the number of licensed members, sanctioned races and affiliated clubs has recently sustained significant and consistent growth patterns, respectively, 48% (from 42742 in 2002 to 63273 in 2008), 29% (from 1969 in 2002 to 2535 in 2008), and 47% (from 1438 in 2004 to 2120 in 2008). – USA CYCLING Annual Report 2008, USA Cycling, 2009

In 1969, 41% of all trips to school in the United States were made by walking or biking. By 2001, this had declined to 13%. – Why Parents Drive Children to School, Noreen C. McDonald and Annette E. Aalborg, 2009

On average, boys cycle 138 miles a year and girls only 24 miles. – What’s stopping teenage girls from riding bikes?, Sarah Phillips, 2009

A recent survey by the City of Calgary, Canada, found that more than 75% of cyclists commuting to downtown Calgary are male. Women are more likely than men to be possible or occasional cyclists, while men are more likely than women to be regular cyclists. – Latent Bicycle Commuting Demand and Effects of Gender on Commuter Cycling and Accident Rates, Heather Twaddle, Fred Hall, and Blanka Bracic, 2010

Based on a survey from 710 female mountain bike cyclists, most women MTB cyclists are aged 30-39 (43.2%) and 40-49 (30.7%). 22.5% of them have rode MTB for one to three years, 29.1% for three to five years, and 38.6% for as long as they can remember. Nearly 90% of these female MTB cyclists first learned about mountain biking from a friend or a partner. – WOMEN OF MOUNTAIN BIKING SURVEY REPORT, Sacred Rides Mountain Bike Adventures, 2010

Most respondents (3,855 people) consider bike riding as normal (65%) and only 7% reckon cyclists are strange. Amusingly, those who cycle the most are disproportionately likely to think others consider them weird – 24% of those who use their bike at least once a week said they believed most normal people think cyclists were “a bit odd”. – Cyclists! The public thinks you’re cool and normal, Helen Pidd, 2010

Based on a survey of campus members conducted by UCSB’s Social Science Survey Center, by asking how they traveled to classes and work, the percentage of those who bicycle to campus is 57% undergrads, 35% grad students, 22% faculty, and only 7% of the staff members. – Surprises in new UCSB travel survey data, Quick Release, Santa Barbara Bicycle Coalition, 2010

According to a survey by the Portland Business Alliance, 10% of downtown employees used a bike to get to work in 2009 — up significantly from 6% in 2008 and the largest year-to-year increase since 2001. – Portland Business Alliance reports sharp increase in downtown bike commuters, Jonathan Maus, 2010

An one-day surveillance of 22 intersections from 7 to 8:30 a.m. and again from 4 to 6 p.m. detected 781 bicycle riders – an increase of 80% from the 433 riders during the 2009 Shasta County Health & Human Services Agency bike count. – Survey Finds Big Bicycle Ridership Increase, Paul Shigley, 2010

According to the most recent U.S. Census figures, the number of adults who bicycled to work in 2008 was 786,098, up 26% from 2006. It was estimated that 201,000 people bike daily in New York City and a city-conducted sample counts showed a 26% increase in bike ridership from 2008 to 2009. – City planners track cyclists, pedestrians to measure trail needs, Trevor Hughes from USA TODAY, 2010

Fatalities for cyclists in 2009 were reduced by 54% compared to 2008, from 26 to 12. In 2001, there were 13 fatal accidents involving cyclists, but since that time the estimated number of people cycling the city had more than tripled, with commuter cycling growing by 26% in the last year alone. The City bike lane network had more than doubled since 2006, growing by more than 225 miles. – MAYOR BLOOMBERG, TRANSPORTATION COMMISSIONER SADIK-KHAN ANNOUNCE ALL-TIME RECORD YEAR FOR TRAFFIC SAFETY, New York City Department of Transportation, 2010

During an average week, about 30% of the German population, including all age classes and rural as well as urban populations, use the bicycle as a means of transportation. Cyclists use their bicycles on average 3 days per week for about 30% of their trips. – Multimodal Travel Choices of Bicyclists: Multiday Data Analysis of Bicycle Use in Germany, Tobias Kuhnimhof, Bastian Chlond, and Po-Chi Huang, 2010

About 25% of children reported taking no walks or bike rides outside for any reason in the previous week. – NHTS Brief: Active Travel, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010

The U.S. Department of Transportation released new data from the Federal Highway Administration’s 2009 National Household Travel Survey which shows that both bicycling and walking trips have increased by 25% since 2001. – New Data Show Bicycling and Walking Up by 25 Percent, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010

In 2009, 13% of children five to 14 years old usually walked or biked to school compared with 48% of students in 1969. Conversely, 12% of children arrived at school by private automobile in 1969, and, by 2009, this number increased to 44%. Rates of school bus ridership to school over this same 40-year span showed the least change, increasing from 38% to 40%. – U.S. Travel Data Show Decline in Walking and Bicycling to School Has Stabilized, 2010

i. The number of children who ride bicycles declined more than 20% between 2000 and 2010, while the number of adults who ride increased slightly.

ii. More than 21.8 million American adults rode a bicycle 109 days or less in 2010, about the same as the number who rode that often in 2000. But another 3.4 million rode in 110 days or more, and the number of frequent cyclists increased 12% over the decade.

iii. About 10.2 million women rode 109 days or less in 2010, a decrease of 13% since 2000.

iv. The number of women who rode 110 days or more exceeded 1.3 million and increased 8% during the decade. At the same time, the number of men who ride that frequently increased 15%.

v. Participation in bicycling falls off after the age of 55, particularly among women, but male riders who belong to the enormous baby-boom generation show few signs of slowing down. In fact, riding days for men tend to increase after they reach age 65.

vi. Bicycle retailers and suppliers should focus on retaining their loyal customers for as long as possible, but bicycle sales in the US will not grow until the industry finds ways to increase the appeal of bicycling to women. Some European countries have as many women bicyclists as men, and the difference may be in urban design.

vii. Most of the children in America’s largest cities and states no longer have an Anglo-American cultural background. But more than 85% of bicycle riders are non-Hispanic and white. The future viability of the bicycle industry in the US depends on finding ways to appeal to black, Hispanic, and Asian families. This is why it is of critical

THE U.S. BICYCLE MARKET: A Trend Overview, Brad Edmondson, 2011

Bicycle ownership among Amsterdam residents has greatly increased over the past 25 years (63% versus 73%). The increase in bicycle ownership was greatest among residents aged 45 and over, and among people aged over 65 it has almost doubled (from 27% to 48%). – Higher income brackets cycle as well in Amsterdam, Fietsberaad, 2011

13% of adult Georgians ride a bicycle at least once per month. – 2011 Statewide Survey on Bicycling Issues, Governor’s Office of Highway Safety and the University of Georgia’s Survey Research Center, 2011

60% of respondents indicated that they either own or have access to a bike. Males were more likely than females to own or have access to a bike. People aged under 50 years of age were also more likely to own or have access to a bike than persons aged 50 and over. – Riding a Bike for Transport: 2011 Survey Findings, The National Heart Foundation and the Cycling Promotion Fund, 2011

2010 Bike to Work Day was the first Bike to Work Day event for 32% of respondents. 17% of respondents never commuted by bike before participating in Bike to Work Day. 10% of participants started riding to work after the event and 22% started riding more often. – Bike to Work Day 2011, National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board, 2011

Active travel (walking and cycling) declined for women, children, and seniors, but increased among men, the middle aged, employed, well-educated, and persons without a car. At the population level, the prevalence of “any cycling” and cycling 30 minutes per day remained 1.7% and 0.9%, respectively. – Walking and cycling in the United States, 2001-2009: evidence from the National Household Travel Surveys, John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Dafna Merom, Adrian Bauman, 2011

There is not much of a correlation between cycling rate and density. – Population density vs. cycling rate for a range of cities, David Hembrow, 2011

Across the region, the share of bicycle and pedestrian users on The Intertwine is nearly even, with pedestrians representing 50% and bicyclists representing 48% of total trips. Other modes such as wheelchairs, horses, roller blades, and skateboards make up the remaining 2% of users. – Intertwine trail use snapshot: An analysis of National Bicycle and Pedestrian Documentation Project data from 2008 to 2010, Oregon Metro, 2011

A continued steady increase in commuter bike riding in New York City was observed, with an 8% increase in bike riders counted at commuter locations this year compared to last year’s record number. According to counts of bike riders made at six commuter locations, bike riding has increased 102% compared to 2007 and by 289% compared to 2001. – NYC DOT Announces Commuter Biking has Doubled in the Last Four Years and Conversion of Parking Meters into Bike Racks to Meet Growing Demand for Bike Parking, New York City Department of Transportation, 2011

The Twin Cities witnessed 33% biking increase from 2007 to 2010, and 31% of all those cyclists were women. – Infographic highlights biking, walking in Twin Cities, 2011

Since 2006, bicycling counts in San Francisco increased an impressive 71% and were up 7% since 2010. Approximately 75,000 bike trips occur each day out of 2.2 million total trips across all modes. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency survey data in 2011 indicated that 3.5% of all trips in San Francisco were made by bicycle, a 75% increase in mode share since 2000 when bicycling was 2% of daily trips. Late September has 18% more riders than early August. 94% of riders used bicycle facilities as designed. – 2011 Bicycle Count Report City of San Francisco, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2011

Based on the Bike Walk Twin Cities program’s counts which were collected at 31 locations, bicycling in Minneapolis increased 33% between 2007 and 2010. – Bicycling is up 33% from 2007-2010, Bike Walk Twin Cities, 2011

According to data compiled in an annual county survey (part of the federal Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program) on non-motorized transit, average bicycling rates in Marin at peak hours increased 46% on weekdays between 2007 and 2010, and 85% on weekends over the same period, the survey found. Between 2009 and 2010, there was a 29% uptick in weekday cycling and a 15% boost on weekends. – Study: More people walking, biking in Marin, Jessica Bernstein-Wax from Marin Independent Journal, 2011

The number of bike commuters in the USA rose by 64% from 1990 to 2009, and the bike share of commuters rose from 0.4% to 0.6%. Over the shorter period from 1996 to 2006, the number of bike commuters in Canada rose by 42%, and the bike share of commuters rose from 1.1% to 1.3%. – Analysis of bicycling trends and policies in large North American cities, John Pucher and Ralph Buehler, 2011

The number of Minneapolitans regularly biking to work more than doubled between 1990 and 2008 (3,000 to 8,000). This increase was supported by the city’s counts, which show a 174% increase in bicyclists in downtown Minneapolis between 2003 and 2008. – RIDERSHIP UP, CRASHES DOWN: “SAFETY IN NUMBERS” IN MINNEAPOLIS, Darren Flusche, 2011

i. The most commonly noted barrier was costs associated with bicycle ownership. 60% of participants shared that the cost of purchasing a bicycle was a major obstacle, and 25% of respondents expressed concerns with the cost of bicycle maintenance.

ii. More than 50% of respondents talked about their interest in riding with a group; Similarly, nearly half of survey participants were interested in riding with their children; 33% of the Latina and Somali women participants expressed interest in learning how to ride a bicycle so that they could bike with their children.

iii. 100% of the African American participants were concerned that drivers would be hostile to them while riding a bicycle. 43% of the Latino/Hispanic respondents were concerned about being pulled over by the police.

Understanding Barriers to Bicycling Project, Community Cycling Center, 2012

Twin Cities has one of the nation’s highest rates of women bicyclists, between 37% and 45%, which is far and above the national average of 25% female bike ridership. One big reason why this happened is a significant recent increase in local bicycling infrastructure. – Spokes & soles // As infrastructure improves, more Twin Cities women bike, HILARY REEVES, JUNE 11, 2012

According to a Capital Bikeshare casual user survey, in urbanized areas within the U.S., cycling is dominated by males who typically account for three-quarters of all cyclists. In the D.C. region, the gender ratio among CaBi annual members is slightly more balanced with roughly two-thirds members being male. In contrast, the CaBi casual user survey indicated that the majority of survey respondents (52%) were female. This ratio of 52% Female-to-48% Male closely follows the broader census data for D.C., and is a significant departure from the typical 25-33% market share that female cyclists represent. – Capital Bikeshare Study: A Closer Look at Casual Users and Operations, Virginia Tech, 2012

The number of commuters who bicycled to work in 2011 (0.78 million) has increased 59.2% compared with that in 2010 (0.49 million). – A SUMMARY OF 2011 COMMUTING DATA RELEASED TODAY, Wendell Cox, 2012

From 2010 to 2011, the number of bicyclists In the city of Minneapolis increased 25%, and from 2007 to 2011 the number of bicyclists increased 47%. – 2011 City of Minneapolis Bicycling Account: A year-end update on the state of bicycling in Minneapolis, City of Minneapolis Public Works Department, 2012

According to a survey of Portland residents, 60% of respondents were not very comfortable, but interested in biking more or currently cycling for transportation but not interested in biking more. And 84% of them were worried about being hit. – FOUR TYPES OF CYCLISTS? Testing a Typology to Better Understand Bicycling Behavior and Potential, Jennifer Dill, Ph.D. and Nathan McNeil, 2012

Although men and women experience similar environmental opportunities and constraints, women are more sensitive to being close to bicycle trails and paths. – Gulsah Akar PhD, Nicholas Fischer & Mi Namgung (2013) Bicycling Choice and Gender Case Study: The Ohio State University, International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 7:5, 347-365, DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2012.673694

Bike lanes can have a positive impact in increasing cyclists on the street and thus creating a healthy neighborhood. – Effect of Bike Lane Infrastructure Improvements on Ridership in One New Orleans Neighborhood, Kathryn M. Parker M.P.H., Janet Rice Ph.D., Jeanette Gustat Ph.D., Jennifer Ruley P.E., Aubrey Spriggs Ph.D. & Carolyn Johnson Ph.D., 2013

Compared to 1990, a significant 9.6% increase in Boulder bicycle trips was observed in 2012. – Modal Shift in the Boulder Valley (1990 to 2012), National Research Center, Inc., 2013

Girls and boys tend to have similar attitudes toward bikes until their 14th birthday or so. But around that age, gender attitudes diverge dramatically – and no one’s quite sure why. – For girls on bikes, new research shows a turning point: age 14, Michael Andersen, 2013

Lessons from the Green Lanes: Evaluating Protected Bike Lanes in the U.S., Christopher Monsere, Portland State University, 2014

Almost 40% of Americans over the age of 50 say their neighborhoods lack adequate sidewalks, 55% report inadequate bike lanes or paths, and 48% have no comfortable place to wait for the bus. – BENEFITS OF COMPLETE STREETS: Complete Streets Improve Mobility for Older Americans, 2014

In England, riding a bike was considered a little less safe (42% rated this as being the least safe mode) and 57% claimed that ‘It’s too dangerous for me to cycle on the roads’. – Climate Change and Transport Choices, Tom Costley and Michelle Gray, 2014

45% of the total number of people working or studying in Copenhagen cycle to their place of work or education. The figure includes both Copenhageners as well as people from other municipalities who work or are being educated in Copenhagen. If focusing solely on residents of the City of Copenhagen who work or study in the city, the bicycle’s modal share is 63%. In 2012 its modal share was 52%. – COPENHAGEN CITY OF CYCLISTS: THE BICYCLE ACCOUNT 2014, City of Copenhagen, 2015

i. Women represented a much lower percentage of biking trips (24%) than men (76%). Among commuters, the difference varies slightly. Women make up only 47% of commuters and represent 46% of commuters who walk and 27% of commuters who bike. In large cities, their percentage is slightly higher, representing 49% of commuters who walk and 29% of commuters who bike.

ii. In 1969, 48% of children in grades K-8 regularly traveled to school on foot or bike, by 2009 only 13% of children in grades K-8 walked or biked to school. However, By 2013, following a steady increase over the years, 15.2% of children walked to school and 18.4% walked home. Biking to school dropped between 2007 and 2009, but has since been increasing very slightly year by year, to 2.2% of children biking to and from school in 2013.

BICYCLING & WALKING in the United States: 2016 BENCHMARKING REPORT, Alliance for Biking & Walking, 2016

81% of U.S. competitive cyclists are male, and 15% are female. Most cyclists (32%) are 45-54 years old and are from California (13%). – Active member demographics, USA Cycling, 2017

Portland bicycle traffic in 2022 dropped more than a third compared to 2019, to levels not seen since approximately 2005-2006. Looking at data from 2013-2019, bicycling remained relatively flat between 2013 and 2016. However, bicycle counts dropped significantly between 2016 and 2019. In 2022, the share of female riders dropped to a low of 28% in 2022 from a consistent 31-32% over the last 13 years of counts. – Portland Bicycle 2022 Counts, Portland Bureau of Transportation, 2022

2. Economic Statistics of Bicycle and Cycling

Bicycle tourism draws summertime tourists to Colorado ski areas who would not have come otherwise, many of whom come from out-of-state and generate valuable economic impact: bicycle tours generate approximately $640,000 in annual revenue, and bicycle racing generates approximately $2 million in annual revenue. – Argys, L., H. Mocan, J. Barela, T. Boonsaeng, M. Darling, J. Garner, P. Niemann, and T. Potter. 2000. Bicycling and Walking in Colorado: Economic Impact and Household Survey Results. Center for Research on Economic and Social Policy of the University of Colorado at Denver.

Bicycling tourism in Maine is associated with $36.3 million in direct expenditures, $18.0 million in labor earnings, and 1,200 jobs. – Wilbur Smith Associates. 2001. Bicycle Tourism in Maine: Economic Impacts and Marketing Recommendations. Maine Department of Transportation Office of Passenger Transportation.

On average, 42% of users who used the trails in six Indiana cities stated they were willing to pay a fee ranging from $5 to $20 per year. – Wolter, S. and G. Lindsey. 2001. Summary Report Indiana Trails Study: A Study of Trails in 6 Indiana Cities. Eppley Institute for Parks & Public Lands, Indiana University. 2001.

The Coastal Georgia Greenway and its connected trails business revenue impacts are expected to be $5-$6.5 million the year the trail is constructed and $10.2-$15 million five years later. – Toma, M., J. Hoag, and R. Griffin. 2003. Coastal Georgia Greenway Market Study and Projected Economic Impact. Armstrong Atlantic State University Center for Regional Analysis.

Those who traveled less than 10 miles to the trail spent an average of $4 per person per trip, while those who traveled more than 60 miles spent $15 per person per trip. – Farber, S., J. Argueta, S. Hughes. 2003. 2002 User Survey for the Pennsylvania Allegheny Trail Alliance. University of Pittsburgh University Center for Social and Urban Research.

In Lincoln, Neb, the annual cost of bike and pedestrian trails per user was $235 (range = $83–$592), whereas per capita annual medical cost of inactivity was $622, which is over 2 times more than the first mentioned of two. – Cost Analysis of the Built Environment: The Case of Bike and Pedestrian Trails in Lincoln, Neb, Guijing Wang, Caroline A. Macera, Tom Schmid, Michael Pratt, David Buchner, and Gregory Heath, 2004

Each year, the economic impact ($60 million and 1,400 jobs created or supported annually) from cyclists on the Outer Banks far exceeds the original investment of public funds used to build bicycle-friendly facilities. annual economic impact of these bicyclists. – Lawrie, J. 2004. Pathways to Prosperity; Economic Impacts of Investment in Bicycle Facilities: A Case Study of North Carolina Northern Outer Banks. North Carolina Department of Transportation.

There were 1.7 million users who visited theWashington and Old Dominion (W&OD) Trail annually, and spent an average of $74 per trip. This is translated into $1.8 million in total economic impact annually. – Bowker, J., Bergstrom, J., Gill, J., and Lemanski, U. 2004. The Washington & Old Dominion Trail: An Assessment of User Demographics, Preferences, and Economics. USDA Forest Service, University of Georgia and National Park Service.

“Overweight and obesity-attributable costs range from dollar 175 per year for overweight male employees to dollar 2485 per year for grade-II obese female employees. The costs of obesity (excluding overweight) at a firm with 1000 employees are estimated to be $285,000 per year.” – The costs of obesity among full-time employees, Eric Finkelstein, lan C Fiebelkorn, Guijing Wang, 2005

Each year, the average trail user has $564.41 in benefits from reduced medical care due to increased physical activity. – Wang, G., C.A. Macera, B. Scudder-Soucie, T. Schmid, M. Pratt, and D. Buchner. 2005. “A cost-benefit analysis of physical activity using bike/pedestrian trails.” Health Promotion Practice 6: 174-179.

In the Barton neighborhood, properties close to the trail had a $44,332 (20% of mean sales price) premium. In the Travis neighborhood, properties adjacent to the trail fetched a $14,777 (6% of mean sales price) premium. – An Assessment of Tax Revenues Generated by Homes Proximate to a Greenway, John L. Crompton and Sarah Nicholls, 2006

Visitors spent on food and beverage and overnight accommodation directly between $3 and $5 million a year to the economy of the Pine Creek Valley in Pennsylvania. – Knoch, C. and P. Tomes. 2006. Pine Creek Rail Trail 2006 User Survey and Economic Impact Analysis. Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.

Reducing obesity by 2.4% for males and 3.4% for females through cycling, respectively, could potentially reduce national medical expenditures by about six billion dollars, which equals an estimate of an increase of $732 in per capita medical expenditures for increased obesity. – Cycling: An Increasingly Untouched Source of Physical and Mental Health, Inas Rashad, 2007

There were an estimated 106,000 people who used the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail in Virginia during the year studied, and the economic value was estimated at $2.3 million to $3.9 million. – Bowker, J. M., J.C. Bergstrom, J. Gill, 2007. “Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail.” Tourism Economics. 13(2): 241-260.

There were 390,000 users visiting various parts of the Perkiomen Trail throughout the year, and 60% of them would be willing to pay a voluntary fee to help maintain the trail. – Knoch, C. and P. Tomes. 2008. Perkiomen Trail 2008 User Survey and Economic Impact Analysis. Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.

Each foot increase in distance away from the Little Miami Scenic Trail in southwest Ohio decreases the sale price of a sample property by $7.05. For example, a house a half mile away from the trail would sell, on average, for $18,612 less than a house that is identical in all other aspects but is adjacent to the trail. – Karadeniz, D. 2008. The Impact of the Little Miami Scenic Trail on Single Family Residential Property Values (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of Cincinnati School of Planning.

A 98-mile rail trail in northern Wisconsin and Minnesota attracts roughly 46,400 visits per year, with trail users spending $118 per trip, on average. – Kazmierski, B., M. Kornmann, D. Marcouiller, and J. Prey. 2009. Trails and their gateway communities: A case study of recreational use compatibility and economic impacts. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Division of Cooperative Extension Publication #G3880.

In Minnesota, there are estimated 1,010,500 cyclists annually, spending $8 on average on a trip less than 30 miles far from home and $35 on average on a trip more than 30 miles far from home. – Schneider, I., A. Schuweiler, and T. Bipes. 2009. Profile of 2008 Minnesota Recreational Trail Users. University of Minnesota Tourism Center.

Across all regions in Minnesota, there was $2.4 billion in statewide trail spending in 2008. – Venegas, E. 2009. Economic Impact of Recreational Trail Use in Different Regions of Minnesota. MN Department of Employment and Development.

Many businesses near the Great Allegheny Passage (GAP) trails have experienced increased revenue due to their proximity to the trail, and expect to expand operations to meet demand. That is because 40% of trail users surveyed planned an overnight stay as part of their trip and overnight trail users spent an average of $98 a day in the trail communities, and local/day trip trail users spent an average of $13 a day in the trail communities. – Campos, Inc. 2009. The Great Allegheny Passage (GAP) Economic Impact Study (2007-08). The Progress Fund.

There are an estimated 75,600 annual trail visitors along Ghost Town Trail, in Pennsylvania, and almost 64% of survey respondents said that they would pay a $10 annual user fee to help maintain the Ghost Town Trail. – Tomes, P. and C. Knoch. 2009. Ghost Town Trail 2009 User Survey and Economic Impact Analysis. Rails to Trails Conservancy and Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

In Burlington, Vermont, a total visitor spending per day ranges from $10,000 on weekdays at the southern end of the trail, to $45,000 on weekends along the lakefront trail. – Zhang, C., L. Jennings, and L. Aultman-Hall. 2010. Estimating Tourism Expenditures for the Burlington Waterfront Path and the Island Line Trail, Report # 10-003. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Transportation Research Center.

13 million days of cycling occur in Wisconsin each year, roughly half of which are taken by non-residents who contribute $309 million to the state’s economy. – Grabow, M., M. Hahn, and M. Whited. 2010. Valuing Bicycling’s Economic and Health Impacts in Wisconsin. The Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment at University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Cyclists in Iowa, including those who ride for recreation and to commute to work, spend as much as $354 million lower annual health care costs due to fewer cases of heart and lung disease, and other diseases associated with less physical activity. – Lankford, J., S. Lankford, O. Grybovych, B. Bowles, K. Fleming, K. Fuller, J. Lankford, and J. Printz. 2011. Economic and Health Benefits of Bicycling in Iowa. Sustainable Tourism and Environmental Program, University of Northern Iowa. Cedar Falls, IA.

Trail users spent $20 per visit on average, contributing a total of up to $42.6 million to Orange County’s regional economy from visitor spending. – East Central Florida Regional Planning Council. 2011. Economic Impact Analysis of Orange County Trails.

77% of Missoula residents would pay at least $10 more per year in additional taxes to maintain trails and recreation facilities; 21% would pay $40 or more. – Leisure Vision and PROS Consulting. 2011. Parks and Recreation Needs Assessment Survey: Findings Report. Missoula County and City of Missoula, Montana.

53% of Jackson Hole Trail visitors’ activity was mountain biking, and accommodation was their largest expenditure at $65 per night and their stays averaged 7 nights. – Kaliszewski, N. 2011. Jackson Hole Trail Project Economic Impact Study (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of Wyoming. Laramie, Wyoming.

In eastern Pennsylvania, 14% of the D&L Trail users report staying overnight during their visit to the trail. 70% of overnight visitors report paying for lodging during their trip. It is estimated that they spent an average of $132 per night and stayed 2.2 nights. – Tomes, P. and C. Knoch. 2012. D&L Trail 2012 User Survey and Economic Impact Analysis. Camp Hill, PA: Rails to Trails Conservancy.

Cycling and pedestrian activities in Vermont were associated with $53.9 million in direct economic impact, $27.8 million in earnings, and 1,095 jobs. – Resource Systems Group, Inc.., Economic and Policy Resources, Inc., and Local Motion. 2012. Economic Impact of Bicycling and Walking in Vermont. Prepared for the Vermont Agency of Transportation.

A community rail-trail in Morgantown, West Virginia cost $74 per repeat trail user who visited the trail at least once per week. – Abildso, C., S. Zizzi, S. Selin, and P. Gordon. 2012. “Assessing the cost effectiveness of a community rail-trail in achieving physical activity gains.” Journal of Park and Recreation Administration 30(2): 102-113.

Across all forms of non-motorized (including cycling) and motorized recreation, over $1.6 billion of economic activity is directly or indirectly tied to spending by people who engage in outdoor recreation. In addition, total economic activity that comes from outdoor recreation supports 12.0 million jobs that provide $788.0 billion of income and generates $197.4 billion in federal, state and local tax revenue – The Economic Contributions of Outdoor Recreation: Technical Report 2012, Southwick Associates, 2012

The Silver Comet Trail in West of Atlanta, Georgia, currently has about 390,000 trips (cycling and walking) by tourists that result in $20 million in new spending in the area. Expanding the trail will bring an additional 590,000 trips by tourists, amounting to $30 million in new spending per year. The trail brings an estimated $3.5 million annually in tax revenues to the state, which are expected to increase to about $5 million annually after trail expansion. The authors estimate that the trail will induce new residential development near the trail, bringing in between $650,000 and $2 million in additional property tax revenue. – Alta/Greenways. 2013. Silver Comet Trail Economic Impact Analysis and Planning Study. Rome, GA: Northwest Georgia Regional Planning Commission.

The Erie Pittsburgh Trail, in rural northwest Pennsylvania, has 158,507 users drop by annually. 13% of them, estimated, stayed overnight, spending an average of $80 per night. – Tomes, P. and C. Knoch. 2014. Erie to Pittsburgh Trail (Between Titusville and Parker, Pa.) 2013 User Survey and Economic Impact Analysis. Camp Hill, PA: Rails to Trails Conservancy.

Cycle tourists in Montana spend an average of $76 per day and stay eight days in the state during their trip, much longer than the average tourist. – Nickerson, N., J. Jorgenson, M. Berry, J. Kwenye, D. Kozel, J. Schutz. 2013. Analysis of Touring Cyclists: Impacts, Needs and Opportunities for Montana. University of Montana College of Forestry and Conservation’s Institute for Tourism and Recreation Research, Research Report 2013-17.

Illinois’ regional trails receive very high use, mainly cycling and walking, particularly in metropolitan areas. Because the trails attract mostly local users, nearly all reported no spending during their trail use (97%). Those trail users who did report expenses spent an average of $30 per trip on restaurants, gas, gear, and groceries. – Buchtel, S., J. Robinett, J. Scheunemann, and E. Oberg. 2013. Making Trails Count for Illinois. Trails for Illinois, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Office of Recreation and Park Resources, and Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.

Arizona drew 14,000 out-of-state visitors to 250 cycling events in 2012. On average, they spent $260 per day and stayed four days in Arizona. Daily spending ranged widely, from $189 in the Phoenix area to $352 in the Tucson area. – McClure Consulting, Economic & Policy Resources, Inc., and Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. 2013. An Economic Impact Study of Bicycling in Arizona. Prepared for the Arizona Department of Transportation.

Bicycle-related tourism in Oregon attracted 1.2 million trips in 2012, and travel expenditures on these trips totaled roughly $400 million in 2012, and supported 4,600 jobs that provided $102 million in earnings. – Dean Runyan Associates. 2013. The Economic Significance of Bicycle-Related Travel in Oregon: Detailed State and Travel Region Estimates, 2012. Prepared for Travel Oregon.

There were 140,000 people who would use the Catskill Mountain Rail Trail in New York annually. Expectedly, the average visitor from outside the county would spend $64.37 per day. Out-of-state visitors are expected to spend $74.98 per person per day. – Camion Associates. 2013. Catskill Mountain Rail Trail Economic and Fiscal Impact Analysis. Presented at the New York-New Jersey Trail Conference, June 17, 2013.

In San Francisco, the cost of 1 mile of Central Subway is 2247 times more expensive than that of 1 mile of basic protected bikeway, and the cost of 1 mile of Doyle Drive is 1283 times more expensive than that of 1 mile of basic protected bikeway. – Biking by the Numbers, San Francisco Bicycle Coalition, February 26, 2014

The 277-mile Erie Canalway Trail, in New York, has approximately 1.6 million visits per year. Among them, the non-local visitors generate approximately $55.8 million in new sales each year and 731 new jobs. Many of the non-local visitors stay at least one overnight during their visit and spend an average of $531.47 per trip. – Scipione, P. 2014. The Economic Impact of the Erie Canalway Trail: An Assessment and User Profile of New York’s Longest Multi-Use Trail. Albany, NY: Parks & Trails New York.

Bicycling in Michigan generates $224 million annually through retail spending, manufacturing, and event and tourism spending. – BBC Research & Consulting. 2014. Community and Economic Benefits of Bicycling in Michigan. Prepared for the Michigan Department of Transportation.

Road cycling and mountain biking are valuable sources of income for communities close to the Historic Columbia River Highway State Trail: The area had roughly 230,000 bicycle trips in 2013, 87% of which were day trips. This spending translates into $21.1 million in spending, $5.8 million in earnings in local businesses, and 273 additional jobs. – Dean Runyan Associates. 2014. Columbia River Gorge Bicycle Recreation: Economic Impact Forecast for the Communities Along the Historic Columbia River Highway. Prepared for the Friends of the Historic Columbia River Highway, Oregon Tourism Commission, Port of Cascade Locks, Port of Hood River, Port of The Dalles.

In Columbus, Ohio, trail users traveled roughly 11.9 million miles in 2014, mostly by bicycle. 20% of them report spending money when they visit trails, ranging from $17-$18. Cyclists are more likely than other groups to spend money. – Lindsey, G., T. Nordstrom, X. Wu, C. Wu, J. Ciabotti, B. B. Woods, R. J. Eldridge, et al. 2015. The Impacts of Central Ohio Trails. Prepared for the Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission and the Central Ohio Greenways and Trails Group. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs.

Non-motorized trail users in Oregon account for 162.3 million user days per year, including cycling, equestrian, hiking, mountain biking, and walking. Among them, residents who visit different parts of the state spend an average of $48 per day trip or $379 per overnight trip. – Lindberg, K. and T. Bertone-Riggs. 2015. Oregon Non-Motorized Trail Participation and Priorities. Prepared for the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University.

Along a 262-mile cycle touring loop connecting Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, visitors to it spent an average of $287 per day. Lodging was the largest expenditure, averaging $155 per day. The authors estimate that the pathway would be associated directly with 1,154 jobs in the five county region and $33.8 million in labor income. – Jenson, W., and K. Scoresby. 2015. Yellowstone-Grand Teton Loop Pathway Bicycle Pathway Estimated Economic Impact. Rexburg, ID: Eastern Idaho Entrepreneurial Center.

Every year, there are 4.6 million people visiting the Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests, and outdoor recreation in the Nantahala and Pisgah National Forests generates $115 million in annual spending on paddling, climbing, and mountain biking. – THE NANTAHALA AND PISGAH NATIONAL FORESTS: AN ECONOMIC POWERHOUSE FOR WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA, Outdoor Alliance, 2017

According to three new studies from the Walton Family Foundation in 2017, Northwest Arkansas has reaped positive economic benefits from an increasing number of locals and tourists taking advantage of its network of natural-surface trails and shared-use paved paths, $137 million. – Bicycling Provides $137 Million in Economic Benefits to Northwest Arkansas, Walton Family Foundation, March 29, 2018

3. Environmental Statistics of Bicycle and Cycling

If people avoid driving for 23 billion miles per year, there will be 1.4 billion gallons of fuel saved per year, and 12 million tons of CO2 emission can be reduced per year. – Active Transportation for America Report, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 2008

If 20% of the children living within two miles of school walk or bicycle to and from school instead of being driven, it would save an estimated 4.3 million miles of car travel per school day nationally. That’s a total of 777 million vehicle miles during a school year—the equivalent of taking over 60,000 cars off the road entirely for a year, and keeping 356,000 tons of carbon dioxide and 21,500 tons of other pollutants out of the nation’s air. – Safe Routes to School Steps to a Greener Future (How walking and bicycling to school reduces carbon emissions and air pollutants), Safe Routes to School National Partnership, December, 2008

Bicycling can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Bicyclists in Philadelphia ride 260,000 miles daily. This number of miles bicycled saves 47,450 tons of carbon dioxide annually that would otherwise be emitted by automobiles. If Philadelphia could increase its bicycle mode share from 2% to 3%, it would prevent an additional 23,725 tons of CO2 from being emitted annually – Double Dutch: Bicycling Jumps in Philadelphia, Bicycle Coalition of Greater Philadelphia, 2008

If 10% of all New Yorkers who commute by motorized transport modes (motor vehicle or public transit) switched to bicycling or other non-motorized transport one day a week, there will be a reduction of 120 million pounds of CO2 per year. This is approximately equal to the amount of CO2 currently emitted by the homes of 25,000 New Yorkers. – Rolling Carbon: Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Commuting in New York City, Transportation Alternatives, 2008

Replacing some car travel with active travel (walking and cycling). Also includes a small reduction in distance (km) traveled by road freight and a large reduction in the number of motorcycles (from a low baseline), there will be 38% reduction in transport CO2 emissions from 1990 levels. – Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport, James Woodcock, MSc; Phil Edwards, PhD; Cathryn Tonne, ScD; Prof Ben G Armstrong, PhD; Olu Ashiru, MSc; Prof David Banister, PhD; Sean Beevers, PhD; Zaid Chalabi, PhD; Zohir Chowdhury, PhD; Aaron Cohen, ScD; Oscar H Franco, PhD; Prof Andy Haines, FMedSci; Robin Hickman, PhD; Graeme Lindsay, FNZCPHM; Ishaan Mittal, BTech; Prof Dinesh Mohan, PhD; Geetam Tiwari, PhD; Prof Alistair Woodward, PhD; Prof Ian Roberts, PhD; 2009

If 20% of Madison commuters biked to work, 16,687 tons of CO2 emissions could be avoided, which equals a potential savings of $366,577 in value, based on the European Climate Exchange. Similarly, if 20% of Milwaukee commuters biked to work, 40,718 tons of CO2 emissions could be avoided, which equals a value of $821,282. And if 20% of short car trips were replaced by bicycle trips in Milwaukee and Madison, there could be a combined estimated reduction of 57,405 tons of CO2 between both cities. – Valuing Bicycling’s Economic and Health Impacts in Wisconsin, The Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment University of Wisconsin‐Madison, January 2010

In 2010, transport constitutes 21 % of Copenhagen’s total CO2 emission, a total of 551,000 tons. Every year Copenhagen cyclists save the city 90,000 tons of CO2.- Copenhagen City of Cyclists, Bicycle Account, 2010

It is estimated that the EU27 population in 2011 can cycle 94 billion kilometers per Year. Assuming all the bicycle trips would otherwise be done by car, these bicycle trips would save 24 millions of tonnes of CO2 emission. If 94 billion kilometers of trips are combined with bus 42%, car 32% and walking 26%, bicycle trips save 11 millions of tonnes CO2 emission. – Cycle more often 2 cool down the planet – Quantifying CO2 savings of cycling, European Cyclists’ Federation, 2011

It is estimated that annual carbon dioxide emissions were reduced by an estimated 9,062,344 kg, because the residents in Barcelona took their journey with Bicing, a bicycle-sharing system in the city. – The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study, David Rojas-Rueda, Audrey de Nazelle, Marko Tainio, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, 2011

Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes in the San Francisco Bay area decreased the greenhouse gas emission by 14%. – Health cobenefits and transportation-related reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the San Francisco Bay area, Neil Maizlish, James Woodcock, Sean Co, Bart Ostro, Amir Fanai, David Fairley, 2013

4. Health Statistics of Bicycle and Cycling

Cyclists on average live two years longer than non-cyclists and take 15% fewer days off work through illness. – Safety In Numbers: Halving the risks of cycling

Women who reported commuting, walking or bicycling to work 30 min or more daily had slightly lower adjusted risk of breast cancer than women working at home, being unemployed or driving a car to work. – The effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk: a cohort study of 30,548 women, R Luoto, P Latikka, E Pukkala, T Hakulinen, V Vihko, 2000

Bicycling to work decreased risk of mortality in approximately 40% after multivariate adjustment, including leisure time physical activity. – All-cause mortality associated with physical activity during leisure time, work, sports, and cycling to work, L B Andersen, P Schnohr, M Schroll, H O Hein, 2000

Men who regularly spent more than 10 h/week in walking or cycling to work had a mean BMI, W and BMI respectively 0.3 kg/m2, 1 cm and 0.06 kg/m2 lower than those who did not expend energy in getting to work. – Leisure-time physical activity and regular walking or cycling to work are associated with adiposity and 5 y weight gain in middle-aged men: the PRIME Study, A Wagner, C Simon, P Ducimetière, M Montaye, V Bongard, J Yarnell, A Bingham, G Hedelin, P Amouyel, J Ferrières, A Evans & D Arveiler, 2001

Commuter cycling at a self-selected intensity meets the CDC and ACSM recommendations for health improvement and the ACSM recommendations for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. – Determining the intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling, B de Geus, S De Smet, J Nijs, R Meeusen, 2006

People who cycle to work experienced a 39% lower rate of all-cause mortality compared to those who did not – even after adjustment for other risk factors, including leisure time physical activity. – Cycling & Health: What’s the evidence?, Nick Cavill & Dr Adrian Davis, 2007

Cycling is much safer than many people think it is and the health benefits far outweigh the risks. An adult cyclist typically has a level of fitness equivalent to someone 10 years younger, and a life expectancy two years above the average. – Safety in numbers in England, CTC, 2007

Leisure-time exercise and walking or cycling during commuting to work may be associated with better mental health in men than that in women. – Effect of the physical activities in leisure time and commuting to work on mental health, Masanori Ohta, Tetsuya Mizoue, Norio Mishima, Masaharu Ikeda, 2007

European countries that rely heavily on walking and cycling have lower rates of obesity. In contrast, the United States, Australia, and Canada demonstrate extreme automobile dependence and have the highest rates of obesity. – Walking, Cycling, and Obesity Rates in Europe, North America, and Australia, David R. Bassett, Jr., John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, Dixie L. Thompson, and Scott E. Crouter, 2008

Active commuting (walking and cycling) that incorporates walking and cycling was associated with an overall 11% reduction in cardiovascular risk, which was more robust among women. – Active commuting and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analytic review, Mark Hamer, Yoichi Chida, 2008

Men who cycled to work were significantly 34.5% less likely to be overweight and obese compared with those driving to work. However, these inverse relationships were not found in women. – Inverse associations between cycling to work, public transport, and overweight and obesity: findings from a population based study in Australia, Li Ming Wen, Chris Rissel, 2008

The adolescents performed certain wheel-related activities (ie, rollerblading, roller skating, skateboarding, or bicycling) more than 4 times per week, their young adulthood 48% less likely to be overweight. Each weekday that adolescents participated in physical education decreased the odds of being an overweight adult by 5%, with participation in all 5 weekdays of physical education decreasing the odds by 28%. – Adolescent physical activities as predictors of young adult weight, David Menschik, Saifuddin Ahmed, Miriam H Alexander, Robert Wm Blum, 2008

Men with any active commuting (walking and cycling) had reduced likelihood of obesity, reduced CVD risk, and higher fitness. – Active Commuting and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: The CARDIA Study, Penny Gordon-Larsen, PhD; Janne Boone-Heinonen, PhD; Steve Sidney, MD, MPH, 2009

At the state and city levels, there are significant positive relationships between active travel (walking and cycling) and physical activity and statistically significant negative relationships between active travel and diabetes. – Walking and cycling to health: a comparative analysis of city, state, and international data, John Pucher, Ralph Buehler, David R Bassett, Andrew L Dannenberg, 2010

80% of people with knee osteoarthritis reported that cycling and walking eased their condition after they started it 6 months ago. – Lifestyle changes cut arthritis pain, Deborah Condon, 2010

Almost 90% of those that ride a bike for transport felt their general health had improved since starting to ride for transport. – Riding a Bike for Transport: 2011 Survey Findings, National Heart Foundation and the Cycling Promotion Fund, 2011

Cyclists find their mode of transport at least as flexible and convenient as those who use cars, with lower stress and greater feelings of freedom, relaxation and excitement. – Cycle-commuting: the secret to a happy life says New Economic Foundation report, MARK APPLETON, 2011

Compared with car users, the estimated annual change in mortality of the Barcelona residents using Bicing was 0.03 deaths from road traffic incidents and 0.13 deaths from air pollution. As a result of physical activity (biking), 12.46 deaths were avoided. The annual number of deaths avoided was 12.28. – The health risks and benefits of cycling in urban environments compared with car use: health impact assessment study, David Rojas-Rueda, Audrey de Nazelle, Marko Tainio, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, 2011

Cycling to school was associated with 0.38 lower BMI, 0.55 lower odds of being overweight, and 0.30 lower odds of being obese compared to individuals using passive transport. – Cycling to school is associated with lower BMI and lower odds of being overweight or obese in a large population-based study of Danish adolescents, Lars Østergaard, Anders Grøntved, Line Anita B Børrestad, Karsten Froberg, Michael Gravesen, Lars B Andersen, 2012

Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14%. – Health co-benefits and transportation-related reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the San Francisco Bay area, Neil Maizlish, James Woodcock, Sean Co, Bart Ostro, Amir Fanai, David Fairley, 2013

For a standardized dose of 11.25 hours per week (or 675 minutes per week), the reduction in risk for all-cause mortality was 11% for walking and 10% for cycling. – Systematic review and meta-analysis of reduction in all-cause mortality from walking and cycling and shape of dose response relationship, Paul Kelly, Sonja Kahlmeier, Thomas Götschi, Nicola Orsini, Justin Richards, Nia Roberts, Peter Scarborough & Charlie Foster, 2014

Commuter and recreational cycling was consistently associated with lower risk of T2D in Danish adults. Late-in-life initiation of or continued engagement in cycling also lowered risk of T2D. – Associations between Recreational and Commuter Cycling, Changes in Cycling, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: A Cohort Study of Danish Men and Women, Martin G. Rasmussen, Anders Grøntved, Kim Blond, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Majken K. Jensen, Lars Østergaard, 2016

A Test was conducted by 95 participants for 3 and 6 months biking. Fat mass was reduced 3.6kg for 3 months and 4.2kg for 6 months. – Effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial, J S Quist, M Rosenkilde, M B Petersen, A S Gram, A Sjödin, B Stallknecht, 2017

Among a study consisting of 125 adults (55–79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise, the frequency of naïve T cells and recent thymic emigrants (RTE) were both higher in cyclists compared with inactive elders, and RTE frequency in cyclists was no different to young adults. Compared with their less active counterparts, the cyclists had significantly higher serum levels of the thymus protective cytokine IL-7 and lower IL-6, which promotes thymic atrophy. Cyclists also showed additional evidence of reduced immune senescence, namely lower Th17 polarization and higher B regulatory cell frequency than inactive elders. – Major features of immunosenescence, including reduced thymic output, are ameliorated by high levels of physical activity in adulthood, Niharika Arora Duggal, Ross D. Pollock, Norman R. Lazarus, Stephen Harridge, Janet M. Lord, 2018

5. Safety Statistics of Bicycle and Cycling

Between 1996 and 2003, a total of 3,462 NYC bicyclists were seriously injured in crashes with motor vehicles. The annual number of serious bicyclist injuries decreased by 46% during the 8-year period. Between 1996 and 2005, 225 bicyclists died in crashes. Bicyclist deaths remained steady during the 10-year period. Nearly all bicyclist fatalities (92%) occurred as a result of crashes with motor vehicles. – Bicyclist Fatalities and Serious Injuries in New York City (1996 – 2005)

Most of the nearly 1,000 fatal bicycle-related injuries annually could be prevented if riders used safety helmets. An observation project of helmets used by adult and child bicyclists at 120 suburban and rural sites in three Maryland counties showed that helmet use among 2,068 adult bicyclists was 49 percent, 51 percent, and 74 percent in the three counties.both adults and children tend to adopt the helmet-wearing behaviors of their companions. Public health efforts focused on adults should encourage helmet use by adult bicyclists both to prevent head injuries and to provide a role model for children. – Bicycle helmet use by adults: the impact of companionship, A L Dannenberg, T R Coté, M J Kresnow, J J Sacks, C M Lipsitz, and E R Schmidt, 1993

Bicycle safety improvements attract proportionately more people to bicycle commuting (i.e. a 10% increase in safety results in a greater than 10% increase in the share of people bicycle commuting). – Perceived risk and modal choice: risk compensation in transportation systems, R B Noland, 1995

Policies that increase the numbers of people walking and bicycling appear to be an effective route to improving the safety of people walking and bicycling. – Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling, P L Jacobsen, 2003

About 17 percent of bicycle crashes involve motor vehicles. – FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR BICYCLE SAFETY: DATA ASSESSMENT AND NETWORK EVALUATION, Michael Klobucar, Jon Fricker, 2007

cyclists were the at-fault vehicle in 35% of reported crashes. When considering the age of the cyclist, younger cyclists were more likely than older cyclists to be at-fault, with those aged 5-11 responsible for 82% of crashes while those aged 30-39 were at-fault in 19% of crashes. In 77% of crashes involving right-of-way conflicts, vehicles were considered at-fault. – How much does disregard of road rules contribute to bicycle-vehicle collisions?, Schramm Amy, Rakotonirainy Andry, & Haworth Narelle, 2008

Competitive road cyclists assess their own vulnerability to be involved in an accident while riding as being lower than that of the average cyclist, and their abilities to manage risks while riding as being higher. They assessed their own vulnerability to be involved in an accident while driving a car as being lower than that of the average drivers, and their own quality of reflexes while driving a car as being higher. – Risk comparative judgments while driving a car among competitive road cyclists and non-cyclists, C. Marthaa and P. Delhomme, 2009

According to field research conducted by the city of Portland, bicyclists come to a complete stop at a stop sign only 7 percent of the time, and motorists stop completely only 22 percent of the time. – Hey, Oregon, is that an Idaho stop or a California stop?, Joseph Rose, 2009

Berlin almost quadrupled the number of bicycle trips between 1970 and 2001 and doubled the bicycle share of trips from 5% in 1990 to 10% in 2007. In spite of the sharp rise in bicycling, serious injuries in Berlin fell by 38% from 1992 to 2006. In only six years, the bicycle share of trips within the City of Paris more than doubled from 1% in 2001 to 2.5% in 2007. The bicycle share of trips in Bogota quadrupled from 0.8% in 1995 to 3.2% in 2006. The total number of bicycle trips in London doubled between 2000 and 2008, while bicyclist injuries fell by 12% over the same period. Amsterdam raised the bicycle share of trips from 25% in 1970 to 37% in 2005; serious bicyclist injuries fell by 40% between 1985 and 2005. From 1995 to 2003, the bicycle share of trips in Copenhagen rose from 25% to 38% among those aged 40 years and older. Yet, there was a 60% decline in serious injuries. Between 1990 and 2008, the number of workers commuting mainly by bicycle in Portland, Oregon increased over 600%, while the share of workers commuting by bicycle rose from 1.1% to 6.0%. – Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review, John Pucher, Jennifer Dill, Susan Handy, 2009

The presence of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike routes, on-road marked bike lanes, and off-road bike paths) was associated with a much lower risk than the sidewalks, multi-use trails, and major roads. – The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature, Conor CO Reynolds, M Anne Harris, Kay Teschke, Peter A Cripton & Meghan Winters, 2009

During a 16-year study period, there were an estimated 6228700 individuals 18 years and younger treated in US EDs for bicycle-related injuries. Children with head injuries were more than 3 times as likely to require hospitalization and were almost 6 times more likely to have their injuries result in death. – Bicycle-related injuries among children and adolescents in the United States, Tracy J Mehan, Ricky Gardner, Gary A Smith, Lara B McKenzie, 2009

The Hennepin/1st two-way conversion helped an increase in bicycle ridership, a decrease in bicycle crashes (and total crashes), while traffic efficiency has been maintained. – Hennepin Avenue and 1st Avenue Two-Way Conversion Evaluation Report, 2010

Cyclists rode on cycle tracks 2.5 times those who rode on reference streets, and every one million bicycle-kilometers cycling, there were 8.5 injuries and 10.5 crashes. The relative risk of injury on cycle tracks was 0.72 compared with bicycling in reference streets. These data suggest that the injury risk of bicycling on cycle tracks is less than bicycling in streets. – Risk of injury for bicycling on cycle tracks versus in the street, Anne C Lusk, Peter G Furth, Patrick Morency, Luis F Miranda-Moreno, Walter C Willett, Jack T Dennerlein, 2010

When protected bike lanes are installed, injury crashes for all road users (drivers, pedestrians, cyclists), typically drop by 40% and by more than 50% in some locations in New York. From 2001 through 2005, four pedestrians were killed in bike-pedestrian accidents. From 2006 through 2010, while cycling in the city doubled, three pedestrians were killed in bike-pedestrian accidents. 66% of the bike lanes installed have had no effects on parking or on the number of moving lanes. – Memorandum on Bike Lanes, Howard Wolfson, 2011

A common theme for not cycling is due to road and safety issues. Unsafe road conditions, volume of traffic and general safety were key reasons for holding back people. Weather conditions were more likely to be rated as a factor than personal matters such as lack of time or motivation. – Riding a Bike for Transport: 2011 Survey Findings, National Heart Foundation and the Cycling Promotion Fund, 2011

The odds of an HE (hybrid electric) vehicle being in either a pedestrian or bicycle crash are greater, 35% and 57% respectively, than the odds of an ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicle being in a similar crash. – Incidence Rates of Pedestrian And Bicyclist Crashes by Hybrid Electric Passenger Vehicles: An Update, Wu, J., Austin, R., & Chen, C-L, 2011

The average annual number of bicycle/motor vehicle crashes in Minneapolis between 1993 and 1999 was 334. Since 2000, the number has dropped 20 percent to 269, because the number of Minneapolitans regularly biking to work more than doubled between 1990 and 2008 (3,000 to 8,000), and people are so used to seeing and watching for bicyclists. – RIDERSHIP UP, CRASHES DOWN: “SAFETY IN NUMBERS” IN MINNEAPOLIS, Darren Flusche, 2011

The first protected bicycle lane in the US, ie. the 8th and 9th Avenues (Manhattan), decrease 35% (8th Ave) and 58% (9th Ave) injuries to all street users. – Measuring the Street: New Metrics for 21st Century Streets, NYC, 2012

Installation of bicycle lanes in New York did not lead to an increase in crashes, despite the probable increase in the number of bicyclists. – Evaluating the safety effects of bicycle lanes in New York City, Li Chen, Cynthia Chen, Raghavan Srinivasan, Claire E McKnight, Reid Ewing, Matthew Roe, 2012

Although men and women experience similar environmental opportunities and constraints on bicycling, women are more sensitive to being close to bicycle trails and paths than men. – Bicycling Choice and Gender Case Study: The Ohio State University, Gulsah Akar PhD ,Nicholas Fischer &Mi Namgung, 2013

A Portland State University-based study of 2,026 intersection crossing videos found that nearly 94% of people riding bikes in Portland, Beaverton, Corvallis and Eugene stopped for red lights. Of those, almost all (89% of the total) followed the rules perfectly, while another 4 %entered the intersection just before the light changed to green. Only 6% of riders were observed heading directly through the red light. – 94% of bike riders wait at red lights, study finds, Michael Andersen, 2013

Monitoring by the Chicago Department of Transportation shows that cyclists stopping for red lights has improved by 161% since cyclist-specific traffic signals, which glow with the image of a bike on the lens, were installed on Dearborn in December. – City says Dearborn bike signals keeping cyclists in line, Jon Hilkevitch, 2013

In cities that are building protected bike lane networks, cycling is increasing and the risk of injury or death is decreasing. – Equitable bike share means building better places for people to ride, NACTO, 2016

6. Electric Bike Statistics

The worldwide market for e-bicycles will increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.5% between 2012 and 2018, resulting in global sales of more than 47 million vehicles in 2018. China is anticipated to account for 42 million of these e-bicycles that year, giving it 89% of the total world market. The e-bicycle market is anticipated to generate $6.9 billion in worldwide revenue in 2012, growing to $11.9 billion in 2018. Under a more aggressive forecast scenario, worldwide e-bicycle sales could reach 51 million units and $13.2 billion revenue in 2018, the cleantech market intelligence firm forecasts. – Annual Sales of Electric Bicycles Will Surpass 47 Million by 2018, Pike Research, 2012

In countries such as Austria and Germany, sales of electrical bicycles (pedelec and S‐pedelec) have doubled from 2010 to 2012, while in Switzerland, sales increased by 50%, and in Italy and France by 20%. Furthermore, ac‐cording to Eurostat, in 2012 the import of electrical bicycles totalled 180.000 units and con‐tributed to a European market of approximately 1.2 million units. – e‐BikeSAFE: A Naturalistic Cycling Study to Understand how Electrical Bicycles Change Cycling Behaviour and Influence Safety, Marco Dozza, 2013

There is much confusion in North America as it relates to the definition of e-bikes but also in how they are governed. Part of the problem has been due to the fact that this is a new industry with low market penetration, so the general public is not aware of the differences in technology. – Regulations of E-Bikes in North America, John MacArthur and Nicholas Kobel, 2014

Considering time, weight, and volume constraints, it was estimated that 42 percent of goods moved by car courier in Berlin could be moved with an electric cargo cycle. – Freight Tricycle Operations in New York City, The City College of the City University of New York and The Region 2 University Transportation Research Center, 2014

According to data from Accell North America, which manufactures bicycle brands, including Raleigh and Diamondback, economics are driving some people to buy electric bicycles: 34% of buyers hope to save on commuting and/or parking costs, and 18% hope to save money or replace a family car. – Electric Bicycles: Public Perceptions & Policy. Results and analysis of a national survey of American bicyclists, KEN MCLEOD, 2015

Riders of regular bicycles and e-bikes both ride the wrong-way on 45% and 44% of segments, respectively. That average on-road speeds of e-bike riders (13.3 kph) were higher than regular bicyclists (10.4 kph) but shared use path (greenway) speeds of e-bike riders (11.0 kph) were lower than regular bicyclists (12.6 kph); Both bicycle and e-bike riders violate the stop signs at the similar rate with bicycles violating stop signs at a slightly higher rate at low speed thresholds (∼80% violations at 6 kph, 40% violations at 11 kph). Bicycles and e-bikes violate traffic signals at similar rates (70% violation rate). – Risky riding: Naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders, Brian Casey Langford, Jiaoli Chen, Christopher R. Cherry, 2015

Among over 500 non-fatal hospitalisations over seven months in rural Suzhou, e-bike riders accounted for about 25% of all hospitalized injuries, which is more than half of all injuries from road crashes. About half of all e-bike rider injuries were the result of a collision with a motor vehicle and 46% of all riders suffered head injuries, resulting in the policy recommendation to encourage or mandate helmet use. – E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research, Elliot Fishman & Christopher Cherry, 2016

According to a study which issued the participants from three Kaiser Permanente Northwest campuses (1 urban and 2 suburban) e-bikes for 10 weeks to use for various trip purposes, focusing on first/last-mile commuting, and then evaluated how their perceptions and levels of cycling may have changed, results show that participants biked more often and to a wider variety of places than before the study; they become more confident cyclists after the study; and they cited fewer barriers to cycling when given the opportunity to use an e-bike, particularly for overcoming hills and reducing sweat. – Evaluation of Electric Bike Use at Three Kaiser Permanente NW Employment Centers in Portland Metro Region, John MacArthur, 2016

In China, from 2000 to 2012, the annual sales of electric bicycles soared from 300,000 to 30 million. In Holland, the sales grew by 30 % in the year 2015. – Pedelecs as a physically active transportation mode, James E. Peterman, Kalee L. Morris, Rodger Kram, William C. Byrnes, 2016

Electric bicycles were found to be ridden faster, on average, than traditional bicycles, in addition to interacting differently with other road users. Countermeasures to bicycle crashes should be different for electric and traditional bicycles. – Using naturalistic data to assess e-cyclist behavior, Marco Dozza, Giulio Francesco Bianchi Piccinini, Julia Werneke, 2016

There has been little change in the primary reasons individuals are motivated to purchase an e-bike, and they tend to be related to various barriers which deter individuals from riding a standard bicycle; reducing physical exertion, challenging topography and replacing car trips continue to reign as a few of the most important reasons for buying an e-bike. – A North American Survey of Electric Bicycle Owners, John MacArthur, 2017

Lower exercise intensity was observed with the E-bike compared with the conventional bicycle, both on the hilly and the flat routes. – Physical activity when riding an electric assisted bicycle, Sveinung Berntsen, Lena Malnes, Aleksander Langåker & Elling Bere, 2017

Electrically assisted cycling or e-biking manifests itself as an appealing alternative to motorized commuting for those for which conventional cycling is not a realistic option. – “Cycling was never so easy!” An analysis of e-bike commuters’ motives, travel behaviour and experiences using GPS-tracking and interviews, Paul A. Plazier, Gerd Weitkamp, Agnes E. van den Berg, 2017

Users replacing a walking or conventional bicycle trip with an e-bike trip would be expected to acquire fewer moderate to vigorous physical activities (MVPA) minutes since that mode requires less energy than the alternative modes. Users replacing a car, bus, or other less active transportation trip with an e-bike trip would be expected to obtain more minutes of MVPA by choosing a more active transportation mode. – Comparing physical activity of pedal-assist electric bikes with walking and conventional bicycles, Brian Casey Langford, Christopher R. Cherry, David R. Bassett Jr., Eugene C. Fitzhugh, Nirbesh Dhakal, 2017

E-bikes may have the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness similar to conventional bicycles despite the available power assist, as they enable higher biking speeds and greater elevation gain. – Effect of E-Bike Versus Bike Commuting on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Adults: A 4-Week Randomized Pilot Study, 2018

There was moderate evidence that e-cycling provided physical activity of at least moderate intensity, which was lower than the intensity elicited during conventional cycling, but higher than that during walking. There was also moderate evidence that e-cycling can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in physically inactive individuals. – Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review, Jessica E. Bourne, Sarah Sauchelli, Rachel Perry, Angie Page, Sam Leary, Clare England & Ashley R. Cooper, 2018

Use of electric bicycles is not associated with an increased risk of being treated at an emergency department (ED) due to a crash. Among victims treated at an ED, electric bicycle users are about equally likely to be admitted to hospital as conventional bicycle users. – The Safety of E-Bikes in The Netherlands, Paul Schepers, Karin Klein Wolt Consumer, Elliot Fishman, 2018

According to a study consisting of 1,796 respondents, of which 1,663 were from the U.S. and 133 from Canada, the most frequently reported barriers that prevent electric bicycle riders bike more often included hills (53.6%), lengthy distances to desired destinations (40.3%), and not liking to arrive at destinations sweaty (31.6%). – A North American Survey of Electric Bicycle Owners, NITC, 2018

Approximately 35-50% of e-bike trips would have been made by car if an e-bike had been unavailable. In North America, the motivation for replacing car trips is a commonly reported reason for buying an e-bike,11 but only a few studies quantify the car substitution rate, ranging from 11 to 46%. – Electric Assisted Bikes (E-bikes) Show Promise in Getting People out of Cars, Fitch, Dillon, PhD, 2019

Older riders tend to have slightly higher injury rates, but mostly related to balance while dismounting the heavier bike. Despite some evidence of higher hospitalization and injury rates, the average injury severity is about the same as cyclists’ injury. – E-bike safety. A review of Empirical European and North American Studies, Christopher R. Cherry and John H. MacArthur, 2019

The average heart rate during electric pedal-assist mountain bike use was 94% of the average heart rate during conventional mountain bike use. – Pedal-Assist Mountain Bikes: A Pilot Study Comparison of the Exercise Response, Perceptions, and Beliefs of Experienced Mountain Bikers, Cougar Hall, PhD; Taylor H Hoj, MPH; Clark Julian, BS; Geoff Wright, PhD; Robert A Chaney, PhD; Benjamin Crookston, PhD; Joshua West, PhD, 2019

As of 2017, there were an estimated 8.6 million soft-surface trail mountain bikers in the US. Revenue from mountain bike sales in the US were up 3% to $577.5 million dollars in 2017, dwarfing slumping road bike sales of $412.8 million. Electric Mountain bike (eMTB) sales climbed to $77.1 million in 2017, a 91% increase in US sales from the previous year and an eightfold increase since 2014. – Mountain biker attitudes and perceptions of eMTBs (electric‑mountain bikes), Robert A. Chaney, P. Cougar Hall, Ashley R. Crowder, Benjamin T. Crookston, Joshua H. West, 2019

Physical activity levels, measured in Metabolic Equivalent Task minutes per week (MET min/wk), were similar among e-bikers and cyclists (4463 vs. 4085). E-bikers reported significantly longer trip distances for both e-bike (9.4 km) and bicycle trips (8.4 km) compared to cyclists for bicycle trips (4.8 km), as well as longer daily travel distances for e-bike than cyclists for bicycle (8.0 vs. 5.3 km per person, per day, respectively). – Physical activity of electric bicycle users compared to conventional bicycle users and non-cyclists: Insights based on health and transport data from an online survey in seven European cities, Alberto Castro, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Evi Dons, Arnout Standaert, Michelle Laeremans, Anna Clark, Esther Anaya-Boig, Tom Cole-Hunter, Ione Avila-Palencia, David Rojas-Rueda, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Regine Gerike, Luc Int Panis, Audrey de Nazelle, Christian Brand, Elisabeth Raser, Sonja Kahlmeier, Thomas Götschi on behalf of thePASTA consortium, 2019

If the e-bike mode share by trips  in Portland reached 15%, there would be a reduction in CO2 emissions of 1,000 metric tons per day. – The E-Bike Potential: Estimating the Effect of E-Bikes on Person Miles Travelled and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Michael McQueen, John MacArthur, Christopher Cherry, PhD, 2019

The Bicycle Product Suppliers Association (BPSA) states that the average e-bike in America has a wholesale cost of $2,000 (Bicycle Retailer and Industry News 2018). A survey of self-selected e-bike owners in North America found that, on average, an e-bike costs $2,600 to purchase (MacArthur et al. 2018). – How E-Bike Incentive Programs are Used to Expand the Market, Michael McQueen, John MacArthur, Christopher Cherry, PhD, 2019

People who purchased an e-bike increased their bicycle use from 2.1 to 9.2 km per day on average, representing a change in bike share of all transport from 17 to 49 percent. – Do people who buy e-bikes cycle more?, Aslak Fyhri, Hanne Beate Sundfør, 2020

There is an underserved market of people who do not feel they can use existing bike share systems because of some type of physical limitation, but that reaching and serving those people presents substantial hurdles. – Adaptive Bike Share: Expanding Bike Share to People with Disabilities and Older Adults, John MacArthur, Nathan McNeil, Austin Cummings, and Joseph Broach, 2020

13% of West Sacramento and downtown Sacramento respondents in the bike-share service areas indicated they had used the bike-share service at least once, substantial percentages give how recently the bike-share had been introduced. – Electric Bike-share in the Sacramento Region is Replacing Car Trips and Supporting More Favorable Attitudes Towards Bicycling, Fitch Dillon, Mohiuddin Hossain, Handy Susan, 2020

Based on a study involved a survey in the greater Sacramento area of 1959 households before (Spring 2016) and 988 after (Spring 2019) the Summer 2018 implementation of the e-bike and e-scooter service operated by Jump, Inc., as well as a direct survey of 703 e-bike users (in Fall 2018 & Spring 2019), 3–13% of household respondents reported having used the service. Of e-bike share trips, 35% substituted for car travel, 30% substituted for walking, and 5% were used to connect to transit. – Investigating the Influence of Dockless Electric Bike-share on Travel Behavior, Attitudes, Health, and Equity, Fitch Dillon, PhD; Mohiuddin Hossain; Handy, Susan, PhD; 2020

The average age of mountain bikers in Western Colorado is 32.36 years old, while this study ‘s e-bike users average 58.03. These bikers have ridden on public lands an average of 18 years. – E-bikes on Public Lands: A Survey of E-bike Users in Colorado, Nathan Perry, Ph.D., and Tim Casey, Ph.D, 2020

Most groups of electric bicycle users were not more likely than conventional bicycle users to be involved in a crash for which treatment at an emergency department is needed or to sustain more severe injuries if they are involved in a crash. Older female electric bicycle users were more likely than older female conventional bicycle users to be involved in crashes for which treatment at an emergency department is needed and to sustain more severe injuries if involved in such a crash. – Safety of e-bikes compared to conventional bicycles: What role does cyclists’ health condition play?, Paul Schepers, Dr., Karin Klein Wolt, MSc, Marco Helbich, Dr., Elliot Fishman, Dr., 2020

A study showed that the majority of respondents disapproved of e-bikes being allowed on the trail. Among them, mountain bike riders surveyed were less likely to disapprove of allowing e-bikes on non-motorized trails, and equestrians surveyed were more likely to disapprove. – Perceptions of Conflict Surrounding Future E-Bike Use on the Arizona Trail, T. Jake Baechle and Karelyn M. Kressler, 2020

In Israel, mean speeds of young e-cyclists were higher than those of regular cyclists at all types of sites, with a difference of 6–9 km/h. The mean speeds of e-bicycles were below 25 km/h, as prescribed by law, but the 85-percentile speeds were higher. – Speeds of Young E-Cyclists on Urban Streets and Related Risk Factors: An Observational Study in Israel, Victoria Gitelman, Anna Korchatov, and Wafa Elias, 2020

Electrically-assisted bicycles (e-bikes), if used to replace car travel, have the capability to cut car carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in England by up to 50% (about 30 million tonnes per year). – e-bike carbon savings – how much and where?, Ian Philips, Jillian Anable and Tim Chatterton, 2020

62% of Gocycle GX owners have used their car less since owning the bike, with their ideal trip length being 5-10 miles. 59% believe the bike has had a noticeable impact on their fitness while 49% stated that their general sense of health and wellbeing has improved a lot. – GOCYCLE RESEARCH SHOWS OWNING AN E-BIKE MAKES YOU HEALTHIER, HAPPIER AND LESS LIKELY TO USE YOUR CAR, GOCYCLE, 2020

70% of the respondents (1496 students and staff members) live within 12 km of the university campuses in Liege, allowing e-bike trips. Safe bike paths are the key stimuli for increased cycling trips for 62% of the car users. – Evaluation of the potential of classic and electric bicycle commuting as an impetus for the transition towards environmentally sustainable cities: A case study of the university campuses in Liege, Belgium, ModesteKameni Nematchoua, Caroline Deuse, Mario Cools, Sigrid Reiter, 2020

Women were more likely than men to mention feeling more comfortable and safer using an e-bike than a conventional bike. The size of the e-bike, whether a Strommer or a Xtracycle, gave these participants greater confidence. – Electric bicycles and cargo bikes—Tools for parents to keep on biking in auto-centric communities? Findings from a US metropolitan area, Alainna Thomas, 2021

E-bikes have the capability to reduce car CO2 emissions by 24.4 million tonnes p.a. in England). – E-bikes and their capability to reduce car CO2 emissions, Ian Philips, Jillian Anable, Tim Chatterton, 2021

Among 834 patients, of whom there were 379 e-bike and 455 classic bicycle users, the frequency of traumatic brain injury was not significantly different between the e-bike (15%) and classic bicycle group (16%). Traumatic brain injury was more likely if velocity was 26–45 km/hour, the patient was highly alcohol intoxicated or used anticoagulants. – E-bike and classic bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries presenting to the emergency department, Anna J M Verbeek, Janneke de Valk, Ditmar Schakenraad, Jan F M Verbeek, Anna A Kroon, 2021

Up to 18% of short car trips could be replaced by micro mobility. – Congestion and environmental impacts of short car trip replacement with micromobility modes, Zhufeng Fan, Corey D. Harper, 2022

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AUTHOR

Randy Joycelyn

Randy is the founder and editor of Cycling Soigneur. He has been passionate about cycling since he was a kid. He has been riding bikes for over 10 years. Cycling has just become a part of life.

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